Study of Protective Eyewear for Handball Summary of Phase Two
Principal Investigators: Benjamin Schmid, David Steinberg, Jeff Kastner
February 9, 2017
The purpose of this phase two study was to test six more types of protective eyewear using the same methodology as for phase one, already documented on the USHA website. Both phase one and phase two research will be used to create a new handball specific standard for review and approval by the American Society of Testing and Materials, ASTM International. The laboratory at Pacific University’s College of Optometry, Forest Grove, Oregon campus was used again with the same basic testing apparatus, tools and equipment except a different high speed camera, the Edgertronic SC1. Additionally, "ballistic paste" (red lipstick) was used on the pressure sensor to determine the approximate surface area of eye contact; sensor operation was not affected in any way.
The following protective eyewear models tested were:
1. Revision military grade SawFly, donated by Fred Penning
2. BangerZ model HS-2000, purchased by the USHA eyeguard fund
3. BangerZ model HS-5500, purchased by the USHA eyeguard fund
4. Roca model TP456 for basketball, donated by Steve Birrell, USHA board member
5. Panlees JH0025 for basketball, donated by Steve Birrell, USHA board member
6. ZLeader Champion model, donated by David Steinberg
Study Design and Details
This study simulated how these sample eyewear products react to being struck by a handball using data obtained from high speed video and a force measuring system. Three “shots” are done while collecting data from the video and force measurement equipment for each eyewear model. All shots were direct frontal impact targeting the manikin eye at speeds of 50, 65 and 80 MPH.
Eyewear that fails on any shot will be deemed unsafe and no further testing will be done on that model. For the purposes of this study, the criteria of failure is: any detectable eye contact or any broken and/or cracked unit.
Model Results Summary
|Image 1 (Z Leader Champion).||Image 2 (Roca TP456 & Panlees JH0025).||Image 3 (BangerZ HS-5500 & HS-2000).|
Revision SawFly: This model failed on a 50mph shot with measurable direct eye contact of the lens as it flexed inward from convex to concave. This action, referred to as the "oil can effect", was been previously documented in phase one.
ZLeader Champion: This model failed on a 50mph shot by cracking into several pieces. See Image 1.
Roca TP456: This model failed on a 50mph shot by suffering a cracked frame and lens ejection. See Image 2.
Panlees JH0025: This model fail on a 50mph shot suffering a cracked frame, broken pieces and lens ejection with the lens contacting the eye with measurable force and ballistic paste present. See Image 2.
BangerZ HS-2000: This model PASSED all three shots at all three speeds. See Image 3.
BangerZ HS-5500: This model PASSED all three shots at all three speeds.
The investigators’ interpretation of the video and data shows that there are at least two commercially manufactured eyewear models that offer protection from direct shots to the eye. In addition, David Steinberg has been using the BangerZ HS-5500 since the study was conducted and reports that the unit is very comfortable, has great vision and does not fog up. Part of the reason for this is the larger and softer padding that creates a bigger air gap between the lenses and face. The manufacturer has been contacted to discuss modification to the padding used to further increase protection and comfort.
Given the results of two passing models, it is hoped the USHA will give precedence to making these available for sale and remove the two models currently marketed that already failed phase one testing.
Lastly, the research team requests any USHA member to join us to provide insight and input to the creation of a new, handball specific, ASTM standard.
Phase One Study
The accompanying “Study of Protective Eyewear for Handball” was conducted last winter at Pacific University. Principal investigators were Benjamin Schmid and David Steinberg. Consultants were Karl Citek, MS, O.D., PhD, and Professor Fraser Horn, O.D., chairman of the Sports Vision Council of the American Optometric Association. Videographer was Jeff Kastner.
See the unabridged Study for Protective Eyewear for Handball report HERE.
If interested in providing feedback for the ASTM subcommittee to write a standard for handball CLICK HERE.
The purpose of the study in March was to test the efficacy of several common types of protective eyewear used for handball.
The laboratory at Pacific University’s School of Optometry in Forest Grove, Ore., was the site for the study. The lab offered the basic testing apparatus, tools and equipment, and several professors of optometry provided expert opinion, oversight, comments and feedback to the experimental design and testing process.This study simulated how sample eyewear products react to being struck by a handball and observed effects on eye anatomy using data obtained from high-speed video and a force-measuring system.There are numerous variables to consider testing in a dynamic sport like handball. The investigators chose three to control: launch velocity, impact angle and ball type. Three “shots” are done for each variable while collecting data from the video and force-measurement equipment for each eyewear model.
To be effective, eyewear must be able to prevent direct ball contact with the globe, lessen and disperse the impact energy, remain intact and in place, fit comfortably and minimize view obstruction.
In handball, the risk for globe injury from indirect impact is higher than direct impact for two reasons:
- The facial area — temple and nose bridge — where forces can be transmitted to the globe is larger than the eye socket.
- In player positioning, the exposed player is most often looking back from an angle.
The design of this study to include indirect impacts was initiated because of recent injuries of this nature that caused permanent vision loss. Interestingly, side and angled impact studies are noticeably absent from the body of research, though this mechanism of injury and associated trauma is well documented.
The testing equipment consisted of a Plexiglas enclosure containing the standard Canadian head form for the average adult male fixed on an adjustable mount. The ball was launched through an aperture in the Plexiglas from a Juggs gun over a light-sensitive chronograph to measure velocity. Data from each impact was collected from two sources: an ultra-high-speed camera and a force-sensor system. The camera was the Phantom V711 rented from Vision Research1, the manufacturer. It was configured to operate at 20,000 frames per second using a 50mm lens and mounted about 1 foot from the mannequin with an essential field of view of about 6 square inches perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball.
The sensor unit was the Tekscan multi-handle high-speed ELF system with three thin film transducers connected via three USB ports to a Windows-based computer.The ELF software can record up to 6,000 force reading per second with an upper limit of 1,000 pounds for each transducer. The transducers are mounted on the mannequin under the eyewear on the inside nose bridge, the temple and the eye.
The following parameters chosen for the study were: launch velocities of 50 mph, 65 mph and 80 mph, and impact angles with the mannequin of 0 degrees (frontal impact), 90 degrees (side impact) and 115 degrees (angled impact).
The vast majority of adult players routinely hit the Red 21 ball at 50 mph. All handball specifications are available on the USHA’s website.
Four commercially available eyewear models were tested — two sold by the USHA, one sold by Edtl Handball and the other by O’Neills.
The USHA models are the Blacknight Turbo and Racket-Specs, both manufactured by Unique Sports Inc. and passed the ASTM F803 standard in 1998.
The Edtl Handball model is called the Edtl Eyeshield and is lensless. It has been tested and did not pass the ASTM F803 standard.
The O’Neills model is called the Challenger lensless eyeguard and today is the most commonly used of the four. This model was tested in the 1980s as referenced previously and was originally manufactured in the U.S. It also did not pass the ASTM F803 standard.
Preliminary testing was done to refine the procedures and coordinate the force-sensor and video recordings during each ball launch. Video data was captured in RAW format and later converted to MPEG4 format by Jeff Kastner, the videographer.
See the full report for the force-sensor readings were captured by the computer in spreadsheet format and later culled down to all non-zero data by the investigators.
After several dozen preliminary tests, the investigators found that the impact data from the 115-degree and 90-degree angles were very similar and opted to conduct the formal testing using only the 90-degree angle and the 0-degree angle.
This model failed on both the 0- and 90-degree impacts at 50 mph with the Red 21 ball. The failures include direct eye contact by the lens, ejection of the lens from the frame, broken lens, broken nose bridge and the attachment pins, and broken arm of the frame. See video files r50-0_1.mpeg4 for eye contact and fragment projectile and r50-90_1.mpeg4 for lens ejection as two failure examples.
This model failed the 0-degree impact at 50 mph with the Red 21 ball, and no further testing was done on the other balls.The failure includes direct eye contact by the lens. Force-measurement recordings from direct eye contact, the nose bridge and temple area are consistent with the video. See video files r50-0_02.mpeg4 and r50-0_03.mpeg4 for direct eye contact of the lens.
This model failed on the 0-degree impact at 50 mph with all three balls. The failure is direct eye contact by each ball with corresponding force measurements. See video files w50-0_1.mpeg4 and b50-0_1.
Additionally, the investigators noted from the video files that this lensless model introduces two other dangers that actually increase the risk of eye injury.
First, ball impact on the upper or lower frame with more than half the ball diameter inside the lensless area causes the ball to rotate around the impacted frame in a whiplike fashion, adding angular momentum to the impact as it enters the eye socket.
Second, because of this observed phenomenon, the impact area for direct eye contact is increased by slightly less than the radius of the ball both above and below the eye socket. The investigators referred to this as the “funnel effect,” and it is visible in video file trial_1.mpeg4, a 50-mph shot during the preliminary testing phase.
This model failed on the 0-degree impact at 50 mph with the Red 21 ball with direct eye contact and corresponding force measurements. See video files r50-0_1.mpeg4 and r50-0_3.mpeg4 .
The investigators also noted the presence of the funneling effect on this model in both videos.
The investigators’ interpretation of the video and data is that none of the currently marketed eyewear models tested provide eye protection for handball in the tests conducted that simulate real playing conditions.
At a minimum, every model failed to prevent direct contact of the globe by either the ball or the eyewear. Players wearing any of the four tested models who are unaware of these facts may have a false sense of security that they have at least some protection. Additionally, because of the discovery of the funnel effect, lensless models actually increase the risk of eye injury.
Fortunately, eye injuries in handball are quite rare. However, the consequences of such an injury are catastrophic. The USHA recognized this in 1988 when it mandated eyewear usage in sanctioned events.
The USHA does recommend lensed models in the rule book and sells ASTM-approved ones. The investigators currently have an open dialogue with the ASTM to get the F803 modified for handball based on the evidence of the test data.
Additionally, the investigators have informed Unique Sports that its marketed eyewear fails the ASTM F803 standard when used for handball. Finally, it is the investigators’ desire to make the data and video of their testing widely available to stimulate the innovation of better protective eyewear for the safety of those who play handball.
Kena Byrd-Jackson of Tucson won the Girl's 15/17-Under crown over Marisol Maldonado, 21-1, 21-8.
19 A Semifinals: Carlos Espinoza d. Rory Rakochey, (19), 11, 5; Austin Biddle d. Pedro Murrillo, 9, 12.
Final: Biddle d. Espinoza, 14, (11) 4.
19 B First Round: Bryan Pacheco bye; Christian Solis d. Julian Aviles Figueiredo; Greg Cameron d. Julian Rivera, (10), 18, 1; Danny Romero d. Jimmy Connolly, 3, 1.
Semifinals: Pacheco d. Solis, 18, 10; Romero d. G. Cameron, 6, 9.
Final: Pacheco d. Romero, 7, 7.
19 Cons. Semifinals: J.A. Figueuerida bye; Rivera d. Connolly, 9, 17.
Final: Rivera d. Figueuerida, 7, (12), 4.
17 A Quarterfinals: Esteban Camacho d. Ben Flynn, 7, 10; Jake Cervantes d. Jake Moore, def.; Adam Clark d. Sam Ure, 8, 8; Sam Richer d. Noe Rios, 12, 11.
Semifinals: Camacho d. Cervantes, 11, (12), 2; Clark d. Richer, 13, (18), 6.
Final: Clark d. Camacho, (11), 8, 8.
17 B: First Round: Carlos Castillo d. Alejandro Sandoval, 14, 10; Sam Brekke d. Danny Connolly, 0, 1.
Quarterfinals: Aron Cameron d. Angel Mariscal, (17), 10, 3; Nicholas Roberts d. John Silva, 20, 17; Vince Fork d. Castillo, 20, (13), 6; Ruaric Cusack d. Brekke, 14, 5.
Semifinals: Roberts d. Cameron, 7, 13; Cusack d. Ford, 4, 8.
Final: Roberts d. Cusack, (14), 14, 10.
17 Cons. First Round: Castillo d. Mariscal, 2, (20), 0; Sandoval d. Brekke, 13, 10; Silva d. D. Connolly, 2, 2.
Semifinals: Castillo d. A. Cameron, 2, 5; Sandoval d. Silva, def.
Final: Castillo d. Sandoval, 19, 4.
Final: Chouinard d. Peters, 14, 9.
15 B Quarterfinals: Jamie Moylan bye; Josh Webster d. Diego Hernandez; Isaac Rios d. Johnny Cooke, 16, 2; Jessie Davis d. John Franks, 6, (5), 5.
Semifinals: Moylan d. Webster, 9, 3; Davis d. Rios, 10, 7.
Final: Davis d. Moylan, (15), 18, 8.
15 Cons. Semifinals: Webster d. Hernandez, 2, 2; Franks d. Cooke, 11, 11.
Final: Franks d. Webster, 7, (14), 5.
13 B Semifinals: Abraham Sanchez d. Jensen Payton, 2, 8; Young Tang d. Colton Stout, 0, 3.
Final: Tang d. Sanchez, 13, 17.
13 Cons.: Payton d. Stout, 3, 6.
11 Small Ball B: Vincent Stodola d. Alexis Cruz, 1, 0; Andres Araiza d. Antonio Rivera, 0, 2; Rene Sosa d. Gabriel Orozco, 7, 15; Angel Araiza d. Robt. Martin, 2, 0.
Semifinals: Rivera d. Stodola, 9, 0; Angel Araiza d. Sosa, 11, 3.
Final: Araiza d. Rivera, 5, 17.
11 Small Ball Cons. Semifinals: Andres Araiza d. Alexis Cruz; 6, 8; G. Orozco d. Robt. Martin, 3, 4.
Final: Orozco d. Arazia, 16, 8.
11 Big Ball A: Angel Araiza d. Antonio Rivera, 8, (18), 9.
11 Big Ball B Semifinals: Rene Sosa d. Andres Araiza, 11, 2; Gabriel Orozco d. Alexis Cruz, 8, 9.
Final: Sosa d. Orozco, 0, 13.
11 Big Ball Cons.: Andres Araiza d. Cruz, 13, 11.
Girls 15/17 B First Round: Irena Hong d. Cassie Hanselman, 11, 3.
Semifinals: R. Halabi d. I. Hong, 5, (18), 10; A. Pena d. A. Hernandez, 9, 19.
Girls 15/17 B Final: R. Halabi d. A. Pena, 13, 0.
Girls 15/17 Cons.: Hanselman d. A. Hernandez, 1, 15.
In the Boy’s 19-Under singles, last year’s runner-up and number one seed Anthony Sullivan advanced over Calgary’s Rory Rackochey in quarterfinal action.
In the photo: Oison Hallahan (Co. Waterford, IRE) winds up for a shot against Johnny Cooke (Oak Forest, IL) in 15-Under action.
TUCSON -- Juniors arrived in the Old Pueblo to kick off the 61st National Junior Four-Wall Championships at the Tucson Racquet & Fitness Club. Players jumped on the court as Big Ball singles competition began in the early afternoon and lasted until the early evening. All small ball divisions begin tomorrow with play starting at 9 a.m.
ELMHURST, N.Y. -- The One-Wall Handball Players of the Awards Dinner will be held Saturday, February 25 at the Elks Lodge in Queens. Tickets for the event are $45/each in advance ($50 at the door). It is highly recommended that you purchase your seat in advance! Tables (10 seats) can be purchased for $405. Purchase tickets HERE.
National Champions Danielle Daskalakis, Sandy Ng, Timbo Gonzalez and Tyree Bastidas will be honored at the event, and the Arthur "Butterhup” Cussell Sportsmanship Award will be presented to Carlin Rosa and last year's winner Paul Lonergan. Dr. Raquel Barnes wrote a tribute sportsmanship in honor of this year's recipients.
A Coach for Character
by Dr. Raquel S. Barnes
Sportsmanship for me is when a guy walks off the court and you really can’t tell whether he won or lost, when he carries himself with pride either way.
- Jim Courier, Four-time Grand Slam Tennis Champion
Today's sporting culture, places great importance on the idea of winning and thus sportsmanship takes a back seat. However, in most if not all sports, athletes inspire, bring hope and whether they like it or not, they are viewed as role models. Sportsmanship can be defined by the spirit of fairness, respect and fellowship with other people in the competitive arena. The Arthur "Butterhup” Cussell Sportsmanship Award embodies this spirit, and this year Carlin Rosa and Paul Lonergan will be presented with the award.
Rosa, as a young teen was taught the game by his uncle. His natural athleticism served him well as he climbed the rankings of pro handball in the Open division. Rosa’s humble nature doesn’t go unnoticed once he steps on the courts throughout the Bronx and Brooklyn. It was on the courts that Rosa chose to emulate players like Albert Apuzzi, William Polanco and George Figueroa, who were renowned for their on-court decorum and fair play ethos. These mentors along with the strong influence of Rosa’s family instilled integrity and character.
2016 Winner Paul Lonergan: A Polished Champion
Paul Lonergan has long been a gentleman on and off the court. Teaming with Al Torres, in the 80s, they were always in the discussion to win a national title, finishing second for three consecutive years before Paul teamed with his brother Joe to win in 1991. Lonergan reached the semifinals in the singles in 1988. During this time and throughout his masters playing career today, Lonergan maintains a high level of sportsmanship and fairness which embodies the spirit of Arthur "Butterhup” Cussell Sportsmanship Award.
FT. WORTH, Texas -- In what has become the perennial tune-up for collegiate handball in the Southwest and neighboring regions, players from the University of Texas, Texas A&M and Missouri State joined top players from the region to go for the bottom board at the 71st Annual George Lee Invitational.
Ten days before they compete as teammates at the Collegiate Nationals in Tempe, Arizona, Sunday’s open singles final pitted Missouri State’s Sam Esser against fellow bear Max Langmack. Looking to improve on his second place finish from the year before Esser outlasted Langmack his teammate to win in two games, 21-5, 21-15. See the match here (https://youtu.be/dNj4SfsG8Ug) Esser later teamed up with Langmack to slam, edging out Dallas locals Jon Flynt and Jeff Wall in open doubles.
Missouri State’s prowess continued throughout the lower brackets with Jeremy Young winning the A-singles, Garrett Bacon taking the B-singles, and Ross Colyer defeating teammate Mike Noel in the C-singles.
The collegiate women couldn’t overtake their veteran counterparts, as Teresa Bowman defeated Kayla Jones in 2 games to take the Women’s final. Other finals included Mike Sherburne defeating Jerry Garcia in 50+ singles, Frank Swehosky over Karl Stundins in the 60+ singles, and Roger Knudson outlasting Jimmy “Tag” Coolidge in the 70+ singles.
See the 71st George Lee Invitational brackets here: https://www.bracketace.com/cgi-bin/brackets.pl?tid=108
The George Lee Invitational is also known for its technological displays. This year on display was the new video scoreboard powered by the Ace Referee app. If you have a ChromeCast and a couple of Android or iOS devices, you can try it for yourself and at your next tournament!
Jeff Wall, Southwest Region USHA Board Member, contributed to this report.
MINNEAPOLIS -- The U of M Fall Classic & WPH R48Pro Stop #2 wrapped up on Sunday morning at the University of Minnesota's Recreation and Wellness Center. In the R48Pro final, Mando Ortiz and David Fink dazzled the crowd with an intense three-game match which Ortiz won 15-4, 8-15, 15-9. Ortiz came out shooting in the tiebreaker, streaking to a 10-4 lead only to see Fink storm back to make the score close and the outcome in doubt. Ortiz ultimately pulled away for the win. The final capped an incredible weekend for Fink, making his first R48Pro final.
Marcos Chavez and Naty Alvarado Jr. once again met in the SR48Pro final. While Alvarado jumped out to an early lead in the first game, through resilient play, Chavez came back to win 15-13 and 15-11.
See the WPH write-up with updated rankings HERE.
See draws and results of the U of M Fall Classic HERE.
If you didn't get to see any of the weekend's action, the R48Pro replay is available at WatchESPN.com or on the Watch ESPN App (Available on iPhone and Android phones).
Image courtesy of WPH.
Once again, Bob and Sue Delaney are offering collegiate scholarships for youth handball players from Arizona and/or Illinois.
Eligibility: Any full-time collegiate handball players who are either attending school in Arizona or Illinois or grew up in either state and is an active handball player or playing in a college program. The intent is to reward students with good academic records, and demonstrate financial need.
Application Deadline: April 15, 2017.
FOUNTAIN VALLEY, Calif. -- It was a furious pace on and off the courts on Sunday as the cameras caught the action inside and out. In the men's singles final, Robbie McCarthy held off Armando Ortiz for the biggest check of the weekend. In the photo, Lupita Bike, Bruce FaBrizio and Naty Alvarado congratulate the finalists. "Just look at this audience," FaBrizio said. It's all shapes, sizes and ages, just like the balls we're using here at Los Caballeros. See the results from the Festival of handball at the SGUSO r2sports site HERE.
There were some periods of light rain for most of the morning but it eventually caused the end to play outdoors in the afternoon. The three-wall big ball moved inside where the players proved that they were equally adept at four-wall to the delight of the fans.
This year, the Simple Green U.S. Open carried two WPH Live streams; one on ESPN3 and the other on www.race4eight.com where outdoor and indoor handball could be viewed at the same time! Replay now available on WatchESPN and the WatchESPN App.
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